Important tribes in India भारतातील प्रमुख जमाती

Table of Contents

The Constitution of India has recognized tribal communities in India under ‘Schedule 5’ of the constitution. Hence the tribes recognized by the Constitution are known as ‘ Scheduled Tribes’. There are around 645 distinct tribes in India.

Census 2011

the Scheduled Tribes account for 104 million, so 8.6% of the country’s population belongs to ST. These Scheduled Tribes are spread throughout the country largely in forest and hilly regions.

  • The characteristics of these communities are:-
    • Primitive Traits
    • Shy of contact with community
    • Geographical isolation
    • Distinct culture
    • Economically backwards
  • As in the case of the SCs, the Plan objective of empowering the tribals is being achieved through a three-pronged strategy of social empowerment, economic empowerment and social justice.

Scheme for Protection and Preservation of Endangered Languages (SPPEL)

  • It was instituted by Ministry of Human Resource Development (Government of India) in 2013.
  • The sole objective of the Scheme is to document and archive the country’s languages that have become endangered or likely to be endangered in the near future.
  • The scheme is monitored by Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) located in Mysuru, Karnataka.
  • University Grants Commission (UGC) provides financial assistance for creation of centres for endangered languages at Central and State Universities to undertake research projects.

Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL)

  • Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) was established in 1969.
  • It is under the administrative control of Ministry of Human Resource Development.


  • To coordinate the development of Indian Language.
  • To bring about the essential unity of Indian languages through scientific studies.
  • Promote interdisciplinary research.
  • Contribute to mutual enrichment of languages and contribute towards emotional integration of the people of India.
  • protects and documents minor, minority and tribal languages.
  • जमात राज्य
    1. अबोर=अरुणाचल प्रदेश
    2. आपातनी=अरुणाचल प्रदेश
    3. आओ=नागाल्यांड
    4. अंगामी=नागाल्यांड
    5. कोल=छत्तीसगढ
    6. कोटा=तामिळनाडू
    7. मुंडा=झारखंड
    8. कोलाम=आंध्रप्रदेश
    9. छुतीया=आसाम
    10. चेंचू=आंध्रप्रदेश
    11. गारो=मेघालय, आसाम, नागाल्यांड
    12. बैगा=छत्तीसगढ,झारखंड
    13. भिल्ल=राजस्थान, छत्तीसगढ
    14. बदगा=निलगिरी पर्वत तामिळनाडू
    15. भोट=हिमाचल प्रदेश
    16. लेपचा=सिक्कीम
    17. वारली=महाराष्ट्र
    18. चकमा=त्रिपुरा
    19. गड्डी=हिमाचल प्रदेश
    20. जयंती=मेघालय
    21. बोदो=आसाम
    22. खासी=आसाम, मेघालय, नागाल्यांड
    23. गोंड=महाराष्ट्र, झारखंड, छत्तीसगढ
    24. लुशिया=त्रिपुरा
    25. मोपला=केरळ
    26. भुतिया=उत्तरांचल
    27. जारवा=छोटे अंदमान
    28. कुकी=मणिपूर
    29. कुरुख=झारखंड,ओरीसा
    30. अका,मिश्मी,=अरुणाचल प्रदेश
    31. डाफला=अरुणाचल प्रदेश
    32. कोरबा=छत्तीसगड, महारष्ट्र
    33. हो=छोटानागपूर
    34. मुरीया=बस्तर छोटा नागपूर
    35. संथाल=वीरभूम, झारखंड
    36. गुज्जर=हिमाचल प्रदेश
    37. खोंड=ओरिसा
    38. मिकिर=आसाम
    39. उरली=केरळ
    40. मीना=राजस्थान
    41. ओरेओन=पश्चिम बंगाल, झारखंड
    42. तोडा=निलगिरी पर्वत तामिळनाडू

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