Mughals was great in many aspects such as architecture, literature, science, administrative efficiency, etc. In Mughal period the literature was on peak.
Evolution of Indian Literature Urdu
- Urdu emerged as an independent langauge towards the end of the 4th century AD.
- The earliest Urdu poet is supposed to be Khusrau (1253-1325).
- He started writing as a poet in the reign of Sultan Balban and was a follower of Nizam ud-din Auliya.
- Babar and Humauan were lovers of literature.
- Babar was himself a great scholar of Persian .
- His book Tuzek-e-Babari which is highly esteemed by the Turkish Literature.
- Urdu literature started developing during the last days of the Mughal emperor
- This credit goes to Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan and Mirza Galib.
- His compositions inspired the other urdu writer Mirza Galib, who was a famous poet of his time.
- Mirza Galib made an important contribution to uplift Urdu poetry
Evolution of Indian Literature Persian and Arabic
- Arabic and Persian were introduced in India with the coming of the Turks and the Mongols.
- Humayun got the treatise translated into Arabic.
- He too was a lover of learning and had establihsed a big Library. Humayun Nama, tops the books written in his times.
- Persian remained the court langage for many centuries. Urdu as a language was born out of the interaction between Hindi and Persian .
- Akbar was very fond of leaning. ‘Akbar Nama’, Sur Sagar, Ram Charitamanas are prominent among the books written during his time.
- Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s Padmavat and Keshav’s Ram Chandrika were also written during the same period.
- Jahangir greatly patronized literature.
Patronage for literature during various rulers has been given example Babur -> Humayun -> Akbar -> Salim -> Shah Jahan -> Aurangzeb -> later Mughals
Following are list of Books, their authors and context of book is given
|Tuzuk E Babari||Babar||About the Reign of Babar, Techniques used by armed forces and ruling system.|
|Akbar Nama||Sekh Abul Fazal||History at the time of Akbar.|
|Tuzuk E Zahangir||Mohammad Khan||History at the time of Zahangir.|
|Alamagir Nama||Munsi Miraz Muhammad Kazin||About the ruling system of Aurangazeeb.|
|Humayun Nama||Gulbadan Begum||About the ruling system at the reign of Humayun.|
|Tarikh E Akbari||Abul Fazal||About the Reign of Akbar.|
|Badshah Nama||Abdul Hamid||About the Reign of Shah Zahan.|
|Shahzahan Nama||Mohammad Sali||About the Reign of Shah Zahan.|
|Shahzahanama||Inaio Khan||About the Reign of Shah Zahan.|
|Tahakik E Hind||Albiruni||Albiruni was an Asian Pandit, who wrotes about Das Emperor.|
|Tarikh E Firozshah||Samsi||History of Tughlak’s.|
|Fatah Zahandari||Ziauddin||About the reign of Tughlak Emperor.|
|Tarikh E Firoz Shah||Baruni||About the reign of Firozshah Tughlak.|
|Khamas||Amir Khusro||Literature and poetries.|
|Shahnamh||Firdousi||About the reign period of Mohammad Ghazni.|
|Ain E Sikandari||Amir Khusro||Best book of Literature.|
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